Electric Vehicle Information

March 11th, 2020 by

An environmentally friendly option, with lower operating and maintenance costs than non-electric vehicles, an increasing number of makes and models, and more charging stations being installed among many major routes in Canada, electric vehicles are becoming a more popular choice among car buyers. To top it off, Canada has a “clean” energy grid meaning drivers of electric vehicles are decreasing greenhouse gas emissions. 

With drivers looking for greener options, companies like GM and Tesla are making big plans to release a wider range of electric vehicles among their brands. With these vehicles coming to market we want to break down as much information as possible so you can make an informed decision whether your next purchase will be electric.

Types of Electric Vehicles & Ranges

There are four types of electric vehicles: Battery Electric Vehicles, Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles, Hybrid Electric Vehicles, and Fuel-Cell Electric Vehicles.

Battery Electric Vehicle (BEV)

    • Runs 100% on battery
    • Initial purchase price higher than similar non-electric cars but tons of savings on fuel and maintenance
    • Level 1 residential charging stations have similar electrical requirements to a dryer or stove
    • DC Quick/Fast Charging Stations can recharge from empty to 80% in 30-45 mins
    • Average range: 200-250 kms on full charge but some models can go as far as 500+ kms

Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicle (PHV)

    • Runs on battery and gasoline
    • Initial purchase price slightly higher than similar non-electric vehicles
    • Can run for longer distances than BEVs because of gasoline capabilities
    • Average range: rechargeable battery packs last 20-80 kms

Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)

    • Uses gasoline engine and electric motor to turn the transmission
    • Cannot be charged from the power grid – electricity comes from regenerative braking and most driving time uses gasoline
    • Cheaper to operate than 100% gas-powered vehicles
    • More similar to gasoline vehicles than electric vehicles

Fuel-Cell Electric Vehicle (FCEV)

    • Creates electricity from hydrogen and oxygen
    • High purchase price due to cost of fuel cell
    • Only 2 hydrogen fuel stations in Canada
    • Only FCEV available for leasing in Canada is the Ford Focus FCV

 

BEVs    

PHEVs    

HEVs   

Acura RLX

 

 

x

Audi A3 Sportback e-Tron

 

x

 

Audi Q5 Hybrid

 

 

x

Audi R8 E-Tron 2017

 

 

x

BMW i3

x

 

 

BMW i3 Rex

 

x

 

BMW i8

 

x

 

BMW 330e

 

x

 

BMW 530e xDrive

 

x

 

BMW 740e xDrive

 

x

 

BMW X5 xDrive40e

 

x

 

Cadillac CT6 PHEV

 

x

 

Chevrolet Bolt

x

 

 

Chevrolet Volt

 

x

 

Chrysler Pacifica Hybrid

 

x

 

Ford C-MAX

 

 

x

Ford Focus Electric

x

 

 

Ford Fusion Energi

 

x

 

Ford Fusion Hybrid

 

 

x

Honda Accord Hybrid

 

 

x

Honda Clarity PHEV

 

x

 

Hyundai IONIQ 2017

 

 

x

Hyundai IONIQ Electric

x

 

 

Hyundai IONIQ Electric Plus

 

x

 

Hyundai KONA Electric

x

 

 

Hyundai Sonata Hybrid

 

 

x

Hyundai Sonata PHEV

 

x

 

Infiniti Q50 Hybrid

 

 

x

Infiniti QX60 Hybrid

 

 

x

Jaguar I-PACE

x

 

 

Karma Revero

 

x

 

Kia Niro PHEV

 

x

 

Kia Optima Hybrid

 

 

x

Kia Optima PHEV

 

x

 

Kia Soul Electric

x

 

 

Lexus CT 200h

 

 

x

Lexus ES 300h

 

 

x

Lexus RX 450h

 

 

x

Lexus GS 450h

 

 

x

Lexus LS 600h L

 

 

x

Lexus NX 300h

 

 

x

Lincoln MKZ Hybrid

 

 

x

Mercedes-Benz GLC 350e

 

x

 

Mercedes-Benz GLC 550e

 

x

 

MINI Cooper S E Countryman ALL4 PHEV

 

x

 

Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV

 

x

 

Nissan LEAF

x

 

 

Porsche Cayenne S E Hybrid

 

x

 

Smart fortwo Electric

x

 

 

Subaru XV Crosstrek Hybrid

 

 

x

Tesla Model 3

x

 

 

Tesla Model S

x

 

 

Tesla Model X

x

 

 

Toyota Camry Hybrid

 

 

x

Toyota Highlander Hybrid

 

 

x

Toyota Prius

 

 

x

Toyota Prius c

 

 

x

Toyota Prius Prime

 

x

 

Toyota Prius v

 

 

x

Toyota RAV4 Hybrid

 

 

x

Volvo S90 T8 eAWD

 

x

 

Volvo XC60 T8 eAWD

 

x

 

Volvo XC90 T8 eAWD

 

x

 

VW e-Golf

x

 

 

Government Rebates

In Canada, the federal government has a program called the Zero-Emission Vehicle Program. A Zero-Emission Vehicle is a “vehicle that has the potential to produce no direct tailpipe emissions. They can still have a conventional internal combustion engine, but also must be able to operate without using it.” This includes BEVs, PIEVs, FCEVs.

Starting on May 1, 2019, electric vehicles purchased on or after that date are eligible for federal rebates. The program is three years, from 2019-2022, and is offered on a first-come, first-serve basis. Federally, there are two incentive levels. The first is for shorter-range, PIEVs with a cash rebate of $2,500. The second is for BEVs, FCEVs, and longer-range PIEVs and this rebate is $5,000. Individuals can use one incentive per calendar year while businesses can use up to ten incentives in a calendar year. These incentives are applied at the Point of Sale, directly on the Bill of Sale or lease agreement.

Incentives can be used for both leased and financed electric vehicles but can only be applied to new vehicles. For leasing, the incentive is prorated based on the term of the leasing contract. For example, a 48-month lease is eligible for the full incentive amount while a 24-month lease is eligible for half the incentive amount

How to Qualify

To qualify for the Zero-Emission Vehicles Program, the vehicle needs to meet one of these requirements:

  • 1-6 seats: Base model with MSRP less than $45,000 OR higher trim levels up to $55,000.
  • 7 or more seats: Base model with MSRP less than $55,000 OR higher trim levels up to $60,000.

Vehicles are still eligible even if delivery costs, freight, and other fees (colours, accessories, etc.) push the actual price over the price limitations.

Some provinces offer additional incentives for purchasing an electric vehicle, such as additional cash rebates, unrestricted use carpool lanes, rebates for installations of residential charging stations, waived fees for ferries, toll highways and even annual registrations.

Other Potential Savings

The savings for electric vehicles don’t stop at government rebates. Battery Electric Vehicles don’t require oil changes, coolant flushes, or repairs to mufflers and exhaust systems saving you in regular maintenance costs. Many manufacturers cover batteries under warranty for eight years even though batteries in EVs should last longer than that, so there’s no need to worry about the cost of replacing one. For an average driver that drives approximately 20,000 kms each year they can see savings up to $2,000 on fuel, alone!

For drivers that live in areas with Time of Use Pricing, electric vehicle owners can choose to charge their vehicles overnight to avoid peak-hydro rates. Some vehicles, like the Chevrolet Bolt, can be programmed to charge during those hours only.

Battery Types

Definitions to know:

  • Energy density: how much energy a battery holds
  • Power density: rate at which energy is used/how much it can deliver

Types of batteries:

Lead Acid

    • In conventional vehicles
    • Inexpensive
    • High power density; low energy density

Nickle-Metal-Hydride

    • In hybrid vehicles and “low-cost consumer products”
    • Moderate cost
    • Lower power density; high energy density

Lithium-Ion (Li-Ion)

    • In PIEVs & BEVs
    • High power density; high energy density
    • More expensive than other batteries

Lithium Polymer

    • Battery cell is not restricted to typical cylindrical form
    • Battery is similar to Li-Ion

Lithium Iron Phosphate

    • Higher power density; Lower energy density compared to other lithium-based batteries
    • Better heat and chemical stability than other lithium batteries – automakers might choose to use them due to safety

Types of Charging Stations

Level 1

  • Requires a 110/120-volt outlet
  • Regular 3-prong socket
  • Can fully recharge overnight

Level 2

  • 220/240-volt outlet
  • can be installed in most homes
  • most fully recharge in 5-10 hours

Level 3/Fast Chargers

  • 400 volts
  • empty to 80% in 30-45 minutes
  • major highways and travel routes in Canada

Level 3 charging stations include:

  • CHAdeMO
  • CCS
  • Tesla Supercharger

The cost of installing a residential charging station varies but most estimates average $1,500-$1,800 for parts and labour of installing a Level 1 charging station and $2,500-$2,700 for a Level 2 charging station. While the cost of installing Level 1 is cheaper than Level 2, EV drivers should also consider their needs, what would be more convenient, and if saving time outweighs the initial installation costs.

Check out this locator from Natural Resources Canada to find commercial charging stations near you!

Additional sources to check out:

https://www.caa.ca/electric-vehicles/

https://www.tc.gc.ca/en/services/road/innovative-technologies/zero-emission-vehicles.html

https://www.plugndrive.ca/

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